Uses of mass spectrometry in radioactive dating
There have been numerous innovative efforts to apply various mass spectrometric techniques in early drug discovery, preclinical and clinical development, as well as in Phase 0 studies using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Today it is widely used in basic research across a diverse array of disciplines as well as industries and specialty areas including food, environmental, forensic, toxicological and geochemical sciences as well as all aspects of the health and life sciences14.
Today there is a re-evaluation and refocusing on how to efficiently adopt, adapt and use modern Mass Spectrometry instrumentation in the Drug Discovery and Development process. In particular MS is now the foundation technology of high throughput omic analyses for proteomics, metabolomics and to a lesser extent some aspects of genomics such as SNP determination14.
Currently, a powerful new gas phase separation technology, Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), is being used in the separation of complex biological-derived peptide mixtures.
The development of IMS-MS has been pioneered by David Clemmer at Indiana University and Waters Corporation recently introduced the SYNAPT™ commercial MS instrument.
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Complex mixtures of organic molecules are separated in a capillary tube coated with a suitable hydrophobic material using a carrier gas as the mobile phase to transport the individual molecules through the capillary and into the mass spectrometer.This is due primarily to the poor understanding of new technology introduction into the DDD process. Mass Spectrometry has emerged as a powerful analytical tool applied to the health life sciences and the pharmaceutical sector14,15-18.It is important to recognise that a complex array of factors must be considered in any technology adoption and includes the Technology Development Cycle (TDC), Technology Hype Cycle (THC), and the Technology Assimilation and Innovation Adoption Curves (TAC and TIAC respectively). The essence of a modern MS platform consists of a sample introduction port and/or online separation device, a source region coupled to the mass spectrometer and a detection system, all under workstation control complete with software packages to assist in data acquisition and interpretation as shown in Figure 1A.Annual sales, service and ancillary efforts involving such instrumentation constitute a .3 billion global use of Mass Spectrometry in the pharmaceutical sector associated with the Drug Discovery and Development process is rich and varied.Many of the initial efforts were associated with online high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in drug metabolism, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Tanaka (2002) in areas pertaining to the development of MS over the past century13.
A number of these authors suggested specifically that an increasing role of technologies would enhance productivity and directly address critical DDD issues. An immediate question that arises is how can a mature, 100 year-old technology not be utilised in an efficient manner?